Nitai Debnath and Sumistha Das* Pages 98 - 107 ( 10 )
Immunoassays are microwell and solid phase based antigen-antibody (Ag/Ab) interactions majorly dependent on immune complex or lattice formation. Most of these assays are aimed at the detection of very minute amount of antigen or antibody. Such biochemical reactions are bound to identify not only the target biomolecule (immunoassay) but also clinically important pathogens (immune detection) because of their remarkable simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. But the existing technology suffers from certain difficulties like affinity and avidity of antigen and antibody, vigorous washing methods, chances of false positive interactions, appropriate probe selection and dependence on carcinogenic (as substrate) or hazardous radioisotopes. An urgent need is being felt to ensure more specific, powerful and versatile platform for robust detection of immune reactions. In this scenario, application of nanomaterials in immunoassays may pave a new horizon for immune based detection. Optically active nanomaterial dependent detection reduces the chance of false positive results as well as chromogen or radioisotope dependence and time and cost incurred for those. In this perspective, the immense potential of biomedical nanodevices in immunoassays is summarized in this article. Moreover, application of gold nanoparticles in all types of biosensor (electrochemical, optical, surface enhanced Raman scattering based and engineered) is also discussed as a specific tool in nano immunosensors.
Nano immunosensors, surface enhanced raman scattering, point of care device, carbon nanomaterials, gold nanoparticle, biomedical nano tools.
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon-122413, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon-122413